Posted on August 10, 2017
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The right utilization of diamond blades is vital to providing cost effective solutions to the construction industry. The Concrete Sawing and Drilling Association, which is focused on the advancement and professionalism of concrete cutting operators, offers operators the equipment and skills needed to understand and make use of diamond blades for optimal performance. CSDA accomplishes this goal by providing introductory and advanced training programs for operators with hands-on education in flat sawing, wall sawing, core drilling, wire sawing and hand sawing. In addition they offer a series of safety and training videos in addition to a safety handbook in support of the effort to teach sawing and drilling operators. This short article will discuss the application of diamond tools, primarily saw blades, and supply recommendations for their inexpensive use.
Diamond is well recognized because the hardest substance recognized to man. One would assume that an operator of cut to length machine could take advantage of the hardness characteristics of diamond to maximum advantage, i.e. the harder the better. In practice, this is not always true. Whether the operator is cutting or drilling concrete, stone, masonry or asphalt, the diamonds must wear as a way to maximize the performance of the cutting tool. This information will examine the role diamond plays in cutting tools and just how an operator are able to use analytical techniques to maximize the use of the diamond cutting tools thereby increasing productivity and maximizing the life in the tool.
Diamond crystals may be synthetically grown in numerous qualities, shapes and forms. Synthetic diamond has replaced natural diamond in virtually all construction applications because of this capability to tailor-create the diamond for the specific application. Diamond is grown with smooth crystal faces within a cubo-octahedral shape as well as the color is normally from light yellow to medium yellow-green. Diamond is additionally grown into a specific toughness, which generally increases as the crystal size decreases. The actual size of the diamond crystals, typically called mesh size, determines the volume of diamond cutting points exposed on the outside of your saw blade. In general, larger mesh size diamond is used for cutting softer materials while smaller mesh size diamond is commonly used for cutting harder materials. However, there are lots of interrelated factors to consider which general guidelines may well not always apply.
The number of crystals per volume, or diamond concentration, also affects the cutting performance in the diamond tool. Diamond concentration, typically called CON, is a measure of the quantity of diamond within a segment based on volume. A typical reference point is 100 CON, which equals 72 carats per cubic inch. Diamond concentration for construction tools is generally in all the different 15-50 CON. A 32 CON means the tool has 23 carats per cubic inch, or about 4 carats per segment. Increasing the diamond concentration by offering more cutting points can make the bond act harder whilst increasing diamond tool life. Optimum performance can be achieved once the diamond tool manufacturer utilizes his / her experience and analytical capabilities to balance diamond concentration and other factors to achieve optimum performance to the cutting operator.
Diamond Shape & Size
Diamond shapes can vary from tough blocky cubo-octahedral crystals (Figure 1) to more friable crystals with less well-defined geometry (Figure 2). Diamond crystals with blocky shapes and sharp edges are often better suited for stone and construction applications. The blocky shape provides greater resistance to fracturing, and consequently offers the maximum quantity of cutting points and minimum surface contact. This has a direct impact in the lower horsepower requirement of the transformer core cutting machine as well as to increase the life for that tool. Lower grade diamond is less costly and customarily has more irregularly shaped and angular crystals and is also more best for less severe applications.
Synthetic diamond could be grown in a number of mesh sizes to suit the desired application. Mesh sizes are typically in all the different 20 to 50 United states Mesh (840 to 297 microns) in construction applications. The dimensions of the diamond crystals, plus the concentration, determines the volume of diamond which will be exposed on top of the cutting top of the segments on the blade. The exposure, or height, of diamond protrusion (Figure 3) influences the depth of cut for each crystal, and subsequently, the possible material removal rate. Larger diamond crystals and greater diamond protrusion will result in a potentially faster material removal rate when there is enough horsepower available. Typically, when cutting softer materials, larger diamond crystals are employed, so when cutting harder materials, smaller crystals are employed.
The diamond mesh size within a cutting tool also directly refers to the amount of crystals per carat and the free cutting capacity for the diamond tool. The lesser the mesh size, the larger the diamond crystals, while larger mesh size means smaller diamond. A 30/40 Mesh blocky diamond has about 660 crystals per carat, while a 40/50 Mesh diamond can have 1,700 crystals per carat.
Specifying the correct mesh dimensions are the job in the diamond tool manufacturer. Producing the correct amount of cutting points can maximize the life of the tool and minimize the machine power requirements. As one example, a diamond tool manufacturer may choose to use a finer mesh size to boost the quantity of cutting crystals on a low concentration tool which improves tool life and power requirements.
Diamond Impact Strength
All diamond is not a similar, and this is especially true for the potency of diamonds utilized in construction applications. The capacity of the diamond to withstand an effect load is generally referred to as diamond impact strength. Other diamond-related factors, including crystal shape, size, inclusions and also the distribution of those crystal properties, be involved from the impact strength at the same time.
Impact strength may be measured and is also known as Toughness Index (TI). Additionally, crystals may also be exposed to high temperatures during manufacturing and in some cases through the cutting process. Thermal Toughness Index (TTI) is the measure of the ability of any diamond crystal to withstand thermal cycling. Subjecting the diamond crystals to high temperature, allowing them to go back to room temperature, and after that measuring the change in toughness makes this measurement necessary to a diamond tool manufacturer.
The company must pick the best diamond depending on previous experience or input from the operator in the field. This decision is based, partly, in the tool’s design, bond properties, material to get cut and Straight core cutting machine. These factors should be balanced by selecting diamond grade and concentration which will provide you with the operator with optimum performance at a suitable cost.
In general, a larger impact strength is essential to get more demanding, harder-to-cut materials. However, always using higher impact strength diamond that may be more pricey is not going to always help the operator. It may possibly not improve, and may also degrade tool performance.
A diamond saw blade is made up of a circular steel disk with segments containing the diamond that are attached to the outer perimeter of your blade (Figure 4). The diamonds are held in place through the segment, and that is a specially formulated mixture of metal bond powders and diamond, which have been pressed and heated in a sintering press by the manufacturer. The diamond and bond are tailor-created to the particular cutting application. The exposed diamonds on the surface in the segment do the cutting. A diamond blade cuts in the manner just like how sand paper cuts wood. Since the blade cuts, bond tails are formed dexqpky76 trail behind each diamond (Figure 5). This bond tail provides mechanical support for your diamond crystal. As being the blade rotates from the material, the diamonds chip away in the material being cut (Figure 6).
The ideal life of a diamond starts as a whole crystal that becomes exposed through the segment bond matrix. As the blade starts to cut, a small wear-flat develops and a bond tail develops behind the diamond. Eventually, small microfractures develop, although the diamond remains to be cutting well. Then your diamond actually starts to macrofracture, and finally crushes (Figure 7). This is basically the last stage of any diamond before it experiences a popout, the location where the diamond quite literally pops out of the bond. The blade consistently work as its cutting action is bought out by the next layer of diamonds that are interspersed through the entire segment.
The metal bond matrix, which can be made of iron, cobalt, nickel, bronze or other metals in different combinations, is made to wear away after many revolutions of your blade. Its wear rate is designed to ensure that it will wear at a rate that may provide maximum retention of your diamond crystals and protrusion from the matrix so they can cut.
The diamond and bond come together which is up to the manufacturer to provide the very best combination in relation to input from the cutting contractor given specific cutting requirements. Critical factors for both sides to deal with will be the bond system, material to become cut and machine parameters. The combination of diamond and bond accomplishes a number of critical functions.